Taking a gamble at work

You don’t often see an employer using its own fault as a defence.  Except maybe in a jurisdiction where gambling is a way of life.

Mr Baiguen seems to have had a stroke before or just upon arriving for work. He was noticed to be dribbling, his face was drooping and he appeared unresponsive and disoriented. Two coworkers gave him a lift home. When his girlfriend found him two days later he was dribbling and unable to talk. He had missed entirely the three-hour window within which medical care might have substantially improved his outcome.

The Nevada Industrial Insurance Act (NRS 616A.020(1)) provides that

The rights and remedies provided in [this Act] for an employee on account of an injury by accident sustained arising out of and in the course of the employment shall be exclusive … of all other rights and remedies of the employee … on account of such injury.

Baiguen sued his employer for failing to provide him with timely medical help. The District Court found that his sole remedy lay in worker’s compensation and dismissed the claim:Baiguen v Harrahs Las Vegas LLC (Clark Co. Dist. Ct, Judge Herndon, 14 March 2016, unreported). The Court of Appeals disagreed and reversed the lower court: Baiguen v Harrahs Las Vegas LLC (Nev. Ct App., Silver CJ, Tao and Gibbons JJ, 28 February 2017, unreported). The employer appealed to the Supreme Court of Nevada.

Harrahs
Image from here

The Supreme Court agreed with the District Court. It followed its earlier decision of Mirage v Cotton, 121 Nev. 396; 116 P. 3d 56 (2005), finding that an injury occurs ‘in the course of employment’ when it occurs at the workplace while going to or from work within a reasonable time.

The Court also considered that the accident had arisen out of Mr Baiguen’s employment. Nevada law classes risks at work as “employment risks” (for example, getting a hand caught in a machine), “personal risks” (for example, epilepsy) and “neutral risks” (for example, getting struck by lightning).  A mix of an employment risk and another risk would be an employment risk. The court found that while Baiguen’s stroke was a personal risk, his employer’s defective response to his symptoms had caused him to lose his chance of a better medical outcome:

That Harrah’s might respond inadequately to Baiguen’s stroke in the workplace, due to inadequate workplace policies, procedures, or training, or fail to follow existing policies, procedures, and training, is a risk related to Baiguen’s employment. Such inadequate policies, procedures, and training are conditions of the workplace akin to well-recognized physical hazards, like the risk that the injury from a painter’s stroke will be worsened by falling off a ladder, or an epileptic cook who suffers a seizure and burns himself on a stove.

A second argument for the injury arising out of employment is intriguing. The court accepted the classic position that at common law a person is not obliged to aid a stranger in peril*. A duty exists where a special relationship (like employer/employee) exists. The court said that

Under the facts before us, any duty on Harrah’s part to render aid to Baiguen would have arisen out of the employer-employee relationship, not another special relationship such as innkeeper-guest or restaurateur-patron. … Thus, while the NIIA’s exclusive remedy provision cannot bar a guest or a patron from suing in court for negligence on facts analogous to these, the NIIA limits an employee’s remedy to workers’ compensation.

Baiguen v Harrahs Las Vegas LLC, 134 Nev. Adv. Op. 71 (2018)

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* McKinnon v Burtatowski [1969] VR 899 (Vic., 1968); Lorelai Laird, ‘Bad Samaritan’, 104(6) ABA Journal 16 (2018)